The rare and fatal Ebola virus disease can affect both humans and nonhuman animals (EVD). Sub-Saharan Africa is the home of the vast majority of EVD-causing viruses. Direct contact with an infected animal (such as a bat or nonhuman ape) or a sick or dead person who has the Ebola virus can cause humans to get EVD.
The Ebola vaccine, ERVEBO, has FDA approval to halt EVD in the United States. Only the ebolavirus species from Zaire poses no threat and is unaffected by the ERVEBO vaccination.
- What is Ebola Virus Disease?
The deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is most prevalent in Africa, occasionally breaks out. Most nonhuman primates and humans are affected by EVD (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees). It is caused by an infection with a virus from the Ebolavirus genus family.
In what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, close to the Ebola River, the Ebola virus was originally identified in 1976. Since then, the virus has sometimes infected people, resulting in outbreaks in several African countries. The Ebola virus’s ancestry remains unknown to scientists. Based on similar viruses, they believe that EVD is animal-borne and that bats or non-human primates are the most likely origins of infection.
Apes, monkeys, duikers, and humans are just a few of the numerous creatures that the virus may infect and spread to.
- History of the Ebola Virus
Two successive outbreaks of deadly hemorrhagic fever in various regions of Central Africa led to the discovery of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), one of the deadliest viral illnesses, in 1976. The Ebola River, which gave the virus its name, is located close to where the initial epidemic happened in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire). About 500 miles (850 km) south, in what is now South Sudan, the second epidemic took place.
Public health experts first believed that both outbreaks were a single incident linked to a sick person who went between the two cities. The Sudan ebolavirus and the Zaire ebolavirus,however, were eventually found to be the viruses responsible for the two epidemics. After making this discovery, scientists came to the conclusion that the virus originated from two distinct origins and spread to humans in each of the impacted locations on its own.
- Common Signs and Symptoms of EbolaSymptoms may appear anywhere from 2 and 21 days after first coming into with the virus, on average 8 to 10. Typically, the illness begins with “dry” symptoms like fever, aches, pains, and fatigue before developing into “wet” symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea as the patient becomes sicker.
The major Ebola symptoms listed below may include a portion or all of the following:
- Aches and pains, including excruciating headaches, backaches, and joint discomfort.
- Weakness and Exhaustion
- Painful throat
- Decrease in appetite.
- Gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting, and cramping.
- Unexpected bleeding, bruising or hemorrhaging
- Additional symptoms include hiccups, red eyes, and a skin rash (late-stage).
Many common illnesses, including the flu, malaria, and typhoid fever, can have symptoms that are similar to EVD.
EVD is a rare yet dangerous and even deadly disorder. Recovery from EVD depends on the patient’s immune response and good supportive clinical care. Studies show that up to 10 years after recovery, antibodies (immune system proteins that recognize and fight invading viruses) can still be detected in the blood of Ebola virus survivors. It is thought that those who have survived have some immunity to the strain of Ebola that originally affected them.
Description of the outbreak in Uganda
The Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV)-caused Ebola outbreak in the Republic of Uganda was proclaimed on September 20, 2022, following the confirmation of a case in a community in Madudu Sub-County, Mubende District, central Uganda, on September 19.
As of October 26th, there were 115 confirmed cases and 21 probable cases, including 32 confirmed cases and 21 probable fatalities (CFR among confirmed patients: 27.8%). A total of 15 instances, including four fatalities, have been documented among healthcare professionals.
1844 connections were being watched as of October 26 throughout nine different districts in the nation. Since the beginning of the epidemic, 3166 contacts have been recorded in total, and 1194 (37.2%) of those contacts have finished the 21-day follow-up period.
Since the outbreak’s start, 94 safe and dignified burials (SDB) have been performed, 97.9% (n=92) of which were communal graves.
The most severely impacted district is Mubende, which has 54.7% (n=63) of all confirmed cases recorded. The Madudu sub-county has reported 21 confirmed cases (18.2% of all confirmed cases), making it the most afflicted sub-county overall. Seven districts are now affected, as two more districts reported new instances during the previous week (20 October 2022).